From the end of the 13th century the craftsmen in Fabriano commonly countersigned their work with watermarks. This technique (lostwax casting) involves tracing an image as an engraving in a wax sheet held against the light. A wax mould was created replicating the image in such detail that even the finest image shades were reproduced. From the beginning of the 20th century, the technique of preparing the moulds has used the electrochemical process called electrotyping. From the wax original, using a galvanic bath, a negative and a positive copper sheet are produced, which in turn are used to transfer the image under pressure from the metal sheets into handmade paper.

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